STRATFEED classical microscopy method

 

The addition of animal proteins, which is the official indication for animal by-products, is usually done by adding ground slaughter by-products originating either from ruminants, poultry or fish. This means that fine structures are visible after microscopic inspection at different magnifications. The major developer and one of the first users, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, already used microscopes for the detection of microbial contamination of water. After continuous improvement systems for infrared and ultraviolet illumination, polarisation and scanning microscopy are currently available. The principal particles of animal origin that might be present in feeds are bones and muscle fibres. Additionally, cartilage, hairs, feather filaments, egg shells, fish scales and ligaments may also be present. Parts from organs, skin and other soft tissues are generally absent. Most of these particles show a limited number of characters. Bones appear to be the most persistent particles, even after the current EU rendering practice of sterilisation at 133°C and 3 bar for 20 min.

 

Directive 2003/126/EC (EU, 2003) defines the (basic) rules for the identification of constituents of animal origin in animal feeding stuffs. The need for this identification is based on the prohibition to add animal proteins to feeds intended for farmed animals, except for fish proteins under specific circumstances. Since animal proteins are usually available in the form of processed (rendered) animal slaughter by-products, in the framework of microscopic research this material can generally be indicated as meat meal or meat and bone meal (MBM). The main parts of Directive 2003/126/EC are guidelines for the reagents and the equipment, the result of the sieving procedure (two fractions), the procedure for the production of the sediment giving two additional fractions, the use of the embedding agents and the staining reagents, and the quantification of the relative amount and final evaluation. This directive is based on the research of STRATFEED workpackage Classical microscopy, and is a an improvement and stricter application of the methodology compared to the former Directive 98/88/EC. The Directive is an important tool to reach the objective of harmonisation and up to now the microscopic investigation of MBM contamination of feeds is the only method that is validated successfully by collaborative tests.

 


The STRATFEED project aims

 

at harmonisation of the protocol for microscopy, including a check list (Figure 1) used for the collection and documentation of microscopic observations

 

Figure 1. : Part of the check list used for the collection and documentation of microscopic observations (Click here for full check list).

at developing new characters and at collecting elaborate description of the different types of MBM including images (Figure 2) viewable with the STRATFEED explorer

 

Figure 2. : Microscopy pictures library.

 

 

at developing an internet oriented Decision Support System (STRATFEED - DSS) for microscopic research.

at developing a Decision Support System (ARIES - Animal Remains Identification and Evaluation system) for microscopic research.

 

Publications

Journal article

 

Gizzi, G., von Holst, C., Baeten, V., Berben, G. & van Raamsdonk, L. (2004). Determination of processed animal proteins, including meat and bone meal, in animal feed. Journal of AOAC International, 87 (6), 1334-1341.

van Raamsdonk, L., van Cutsem, J., Zegers, J., Frick, G., Jorgensen, J.S., Pinckaers, V., Bosch, J. & Paradies Severin, I. (2004). The microscopic detection of animal proteins in feeds. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 8 (4), 241-248.

 

Gizzi, G., van Raamsdonk, L., Baeten, V., Murray, I., Berben, G., Brambilla, G. & von Holst, C. (2003). Risk analysis of prion diseases in animal. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding BSE. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties, 22 (1), 311-331.

Vermeulen, P., Baeten, V., Dardenne, P., van Raamsdonk, L., Oger, R., Monjoie, A.-S. & Martinez, M. (2003). Development of a website and an information system for a EU R&D project: the example of the STRATFEED project. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 7 (3-4), 161-169.

 

Frick, G., Roetschi, A. & Hauswirth, H. (2002). Analyse des aliments pour animaux par microscopie. Revue suisse Agric., 34 (6), 8p.

 

 

Book

 

van Raamsdonk, L., Zegers, J., van Cutsem, J., Bosch, J., Pinckaers, V., Jorgenson, J.S., Frick, G. & Paradies Severin, I. (2005). Microscopic detection of animal by-products in feed (WP3). In: Strategies and methods to detect and quantify mammalian tissues in feedingstuffs, Bruxelles, European Commission, 16p.

Vermeulen, P., Oger, R., van Raamsdonk, L., Monjoie, A.-S., Martinez, M., Baeten, V. & Dardenne, P. (2005). Development of the STRATFEED Internet-Oriented computer system (WP6). In: Strategies and methods to detect and quantify mammalian tissues in feedingstuffs, Brussels, European Commission, 18p.

von Holst, C., van Raamsdonk, L., Baeten, V., Strathmann, S. & Boix, A. (2005). The validation of the microscopic method selected in the STRATFEED project for detecting processed animal proteins (WP7). In: Strategies and methods to detect and quantify mammalian tissues in feedingstuffs, Brussels, European Commission, 20p.

Poster

 

van Raamsdonk, L. (2004). The decision support system ARIES. Poster in: International symposium on Food and Feed safety in the context of prion diseases, Namur - Belgium, 16-18 June 2004.

Vermeulen, P., Baeten, V., Dardenne, P., van Raamsdonk, L., Oger, R., Monjoie, A.-S. & Martinez, M. (2004). Development of a website and an information system for an EU R&D project: the example of the STRATFEED project. Poster in: International symposium on Food and Feed safety in the context of prion diseases, Namur - Belgium, 16-18 June 2004.

Vermeulen, P., Baeten, V., Dardenne, P., van Raamsdonk, L., Oger, R., Monjoie, A.-S. & Martinez, M. (2004). Development of an internet based data explorer: the example of the STRATFEED explorer. Poster in: International symposium on Food and Feed safety in the context of prion diseases, Namur - Belgium, 16-18 June 2004.


Contributions

This work was coordinated by CRA-W in collaboration with JRC-IRMM, AFSCA, FUSAGx, RIKILT, NUTRECO, SAC, ISS, UCO, LAGC, ALP, LUFA and PDIR

 

Walloon Agricultural Research Centre

CRA-W (B)

Dr Pierre Dardenne, Dr Vincent Baeten, Dr Gilbert Berben,

Dr R. Oger, Ir Philippe Vermeulen

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements

European Commission - DG - Joint Research Centre

JRC-IRMM (B)

Dr Christoph von Holst

Federal Feed & Food Laboratory of Tervuren

AFSCA-FVLT(B)

Ir Jeroen Vancutsem

Institute of Food Safety

RIKILT (NL)

Dr Jacob de Jong, Dr Leo van Raamsdonk, Dr Henk Aarts, Mr Rob Frankhuizen

Masterlab BV

NUTRECO (NL)

Ir Jos Zegers

Laboratory of the autonomous government of Catalonia

LAGC (Sp)

Dr Jaume Bosch, Dr Silvia Termes

Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux

Swiss Federal Research Station for Animal Production

ALP (CH)

Dr Daniel Guidon, Dr Geneviève Frick

Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt Nord-West

LUFA (D)

Dr Inge Paradies Severin

The Danish Plant Directorate

PDir (Dk)

Jan Sten Jorgensen